The way we think of cities affects the way plan them. It is increasingly recognised that cities are complex adaptive systems. Cities are made up of numerous interconnected systems. Adjustments to one system have impacts on other systems. Planning within this context requires multidisciplinary teams and the participation of affected stakeholders.
Cities are constantly changing and evolving. Planning needs to adapt to this reality and set general long-term goals while reviewing cross-sectoral interventions regularly. Regular reviews enable early responses, adjustments, and adaptation to new or evolving conditions.
Simon Ratcliffe explores this conception of a city and its implications for planning and investment.