Traditional master planning separates land-use into separate rather than integrated functions. Urban planning in the 20th century was concerned with road layout for cars. Services and infrastructure were then designed to fit in.
Urban planning is now becoming more concerned with the way in which people live and access essential services. It guides investment in infrastructure and other services to meet the medical, employment, educational, cultural, and purchasing needs of residents. The way in which people live is constantly changing and adapting. Urban planning needs to respond to these changes by being holistic by ensuring climate resilience, social inclusion, and economic empowerment, supported by appropriate investment. The current urban planning priority is to ensure that neighbourhoods and other city features are energy efficient and minimise carbon emissions. This has led to new approaches to urban planning. These approaches include “the compact city” and “the 15-minute city”.